Idiosyncratic! The gable-ended porch may be unique to this bungalow. That may make it more, not less, Craftsman. It's the designer/builder/owner thing.

In the excellent Field Guide to American Houses, the McAlesters state that Craftsman bungalows may be gable-ended, or the main gable may face the street and L-shaped plans are also common. Here in the Hudson Valley the peak is always parallel to the street.

Treeware warning: The above book, highly recommended, is about houses. Do not confuse it with A Field Guide to American Architecture, a book that misses a lot, including the entire Craftsman period.

Craftsman bungalow, Florida, NY, c. 1910.

Craftsman bungalow with gable-ended porch

Edges to Rubies The Complete SketchUp Tutorial

The apartments furniture

Chapter 8—The Apartment's Furniture

Typical of the Craftsman period, we have more built-ins than furniture. For movables, we have a bed in the bedroom, a couch, two chairs, two side tables and lamps in the livingroom. And you have whatever you like in the small room.

Pillows, Polygons, Follow Me and the Eraser

You'll want pillows as soon as you finish your bed, of course. We can start with them. You'll see why the additional topics all work together.

Cylinder made with 24s circle 

Try this in the SketchUp window where you build components.

Ctrl+N. C (for Circle tool). Click origin. Wriggle. Type 12; Enter. (12-inch radius.) PushPull up 18 inches.

Select all. What does your Entity Info window say? Mine says "98 Entities".

Cylinder made with 12s circle 

Move your first cylinder aside and make another one, with one change. As soon as you grab the Circle tool, note what it says in the VCB. Note the VCB's label. Type "12s" and Enter. (That changes the default 24-sided circle to a 12-sided circle.) Create your cylinder as before.

Select all. My Entity Info says "50 Entities".

There are still two end faces, but we've cut out half the other entities and there is virtually no difference in the model. The good news is that every time you grab the Circle tool in this SketchUp session, you will get 12-sided circles. (Unless you order a change, of course.)

Click the Select tool outside your cylinders, so that nothing is selected. View/Hidden Geometry. There are the edges that you can't see. View/Hidden Geometry again to turn them off. Now, delete that 24-sided cylinder. It's useless. Move your 12-sided cylinder out of the way.

Polygon with 12 sides  

The polygon tool (Draw/Polygon, no keyboard shortcut) is almost identical to the Circle tool. The only differences are the default number of sides and the treatment of edges. Grab the tool. Type "12s" and Enter. Make another cylinder, 12-inch radius, 18 inches tall.

I see there's a question in front. The question is, "What does this have to do with pillows?". That depends. If you sleep on cement blocks, it doesn't matter. If you like to sleep on something softer, it matters.

You see that your 12-sided polygon looks like it has twelve sides. Your 12-sided cylinder looks like something round. The difference is in the edges.

Make some useless geometry. Tap "E" to grab your Eraser. Holding the left mouse button down, drag the Eraser over the geometry, slowly. You'll see it select edges. (The Eraser doesn't work on faces.) Once the useless geometry is all selected, release the mouse button. If you find yourself doing this while modeling it may be a sign that you aren't spending enough time with your arms folded.

On Erasing Geometry

Inevitably, you will face a model where you've changed your mind. You need to erase some geometry. Erasing faces is a waste of time.

If you erase faces, you still need to erase edges. If you started by erasing the edges, the faces go, automatically, when they lose their bounding edges. Erase the edges first and you'll never have a face to erase.

In the interest of completeness, erasing with the Shift key down hides edges. I don't know why this is useful. Edit/Unhide/... returns visibility.

Now let's get to soft and smooth. We poor PCers, with just a single model in SketchUp, will use our Ctrl keys a lot. You lucky Mac folks will have to remember that this is your Option key.

Circle- and polygon-based cylinders being converted into each other 

The bottom object was the polygon-based cylinder. I held Ctrl down while dragging the Eraser over the lines on the right. They were rounded. (Google says they were softened/smoothed. If you select an edge you'll see that you can pick soft, smooth, both or neither in the Entity Info window. A wood worker would go for his sandpaper.) The top object was the circle-based cylinder. I held Ctrl and Shift down while dragging over the right side. The edges were unrounded.

Try it yourself. Try it on single edges, then by dragging over multiple edges.

If you PushPull a Circle- or Arc-based line, SketchUp automatically rounds the edges between segments. Normally this is exactly what you want. A rounded edge is really just a message to the rendering engine: render as if there were a curve between these faces.

Once you round an edge, the faces it used to separate become a single face. To see this yourself, make a box, Eraser+Ctrl an edge and Select an adjoining face. PushPull will absolutely not work on this sort of face. The Eraser doesn't erase. To work on this geometry, Eraser+Ctrl+Shift the rounded edges back to full citizenship.

Two boxes, one soft/smooth 

The textile-clad boxes to the left are identical except that Eraser+Ctrl has made the edges of the top one more pillow-like. This would be a good time for you to go back to your dinette in "apartment_builtins.skp" and soften the upholstery.

Ready for a new tool? The Arc tool (shortcut: "A") is a three-click tool. You click two endpoints, move your mouse until your arc looks good and click once more to signal, "I'm done. Save it.".

Using the Arc tool 

Here I've clicked two adjacent edges of the pillow and have wiggled the arc until I get the "Tangent to Edge" tooltip. Click to finish because that's what you want for a smooth transition.

Now another new tool: Follow Me. That's found on Tool/Follow Me (no shortcut). The lack of a shortcut shouldn't bother you. You won't use Follow Me often. When you use it, it's wonderful.

Various Google tutorials show the Follow Me tool being used by dragging it around by hand. Don't. Other Google tutorials recommend that you always select a path before you grab Follow Me. Do.

Using Follow Me 

Begin by selecting a path. If you select a face, the path is that face's bounding edges. This is very common. Here I've selected the face of the pillow-to-be. Next you Tool/Follow Me to get the tool. Third, you select a surface that you want to eliminate. (Like PushPull, Follow Me autoselects faces as it moves over them.) Now click.

Do it yourself. Make a box by Pushpulling a Rectangle that you've Bucketed with a textile. Make an Arc, Tangent to Edge. Select the face. Follow Me to wipe out the part you don't want. Orbit so you can select the bottom. Another Arc and another Follow Me. Finally, Eraser+Ctrl the remaining hard edges.

Picture of pillow

Makes you want to squeeze it. This one is not a keeper, however.

The Bike Rack

Now I'm going to digress just a wee bit. If you have a public facility, you'll want to put in a bike rack or two. Here are two bike racks. The top one is made from pipes (extruded, 24-sided circles). The bottom one is made from square pipes. I made them myself, being careful with both to use groups to minimize byte cost.

Bike rack made from extruded, 24-sided circles

Bike rack made from square pipes

The top one costs 374,443 bytes. The square one costs 36,500 bytes. The former is called "high-poly" modeling. The latter is called "low-poly" modeling. With high-poly modeling, SketchUp will stop doing some things like Orbiting smoothly, for example. You want to be a low-poly modeler.

The Lathe

If you want to be a low-poly modeler, you do not want to use a lathe very often. I'll show you the technique, but only if you promise to reserve for very, very special circumstances.

Ctrl+N. No save—this is not a keeper.

Beginning lathe preparation 

Drag out a Circle, as large as the thing you are creating. Select all and group.

More lathe preparation 

Drag out a Rectangle, as long as your circle's radius. Depth doesn't matter, this is just a drawing surface. PushPull it up as high (or higher) as whatever you're creating. Select all and group.

Drawing the shape 

Draw the outline of the finished shape on the drawing surface. You need to create a face.

Delete the drawing surface 

Delete the drawing surface. As you see, the remaining outline is not a face.

Completing the face 

Add any missing lines. In this case the lines are on the blue and green axes.

If you add these lines and still don't have a face, one (or more) of your arcs is bad. You can test by drawing a line between the endpoints of your arc. If a face suddenly appears, you've found the bad arc. Delete line and arc and redraw the arc.


Select the circle (the Follow Me path). Explode it. Select its face. Tools/Follow Me. Click the face of the drawing you made.

Voila! Eat your hearts out, all you rectangular parallelepipeds!

You may get a warning message. If you've got the shape you want, ignore it.

You may get nothing at all. SketchUp doesn't give you an hourglass (or other "wait a minute, I'm working" message). Wait patiently.

Save your result as "mistake.skp" and check Model Info/File. I've wasted 156,358 bytes and only have a doorknob to show for it. Delete "mistake.skp" and there's no harm done.


One more example regarding model economics. You are modeling a commercial establishment. A few plants in planters beside the main doors would be nice. Pick one of these three:

Three planters, one round with curved sides, another a simple cylinder and a rectangular one.

The price of the one with the curved sides is 250,265 bytes. The cylinder costs 11,368 bytes. The square one costs 2,658 bytes.

Potters: if you are making a model of your proposed work, fear not. A model of 250KB is small. This is just inappropriate when used in a model not focused on the crockery.

Another Pillow

Making a pillow without arcs 

A low-poly modeler will always question curves. Suppose we used lines, instead. Here I'm preparing to Follow Me with lines.

Pillow without softened lines 

Two Follow Me's later, the shape emerges.

Arc-free pillow with softened lines 

It takes quite a bit of Orbiting to Eraser+Ctrl all the edges, but the result is a low-poly pillow that will look fine on your bed. Make one of your own and save it in "components" as "pillow.skp".

A Bed

In October, 1905, Gustav Stickley's Craftsman magazine published a plan for a bed. It was a single bed, and three inches narrower than today's "twin" bed. I'm going to model it as faithfully as possible, except mine will be queen-sized. (If your newsstand doesn't have too much from 1905, this one's in the Dover reprint, Making Authentic Craftsman Furniture. The whole magazine is available, if memory serves, on the University of Wisconsin's website. A Google search is more reliable than my memory.)

This is where we're going:

Stickley-designed, Rinehart queen-sized bed

Bed Side Rails with Keys

Let's tackle the tough parts first.

Initial layout of mattress and guide for rail 

Begin with a Rectangle, 60 on the green axis by 80 red. Select all and Group. Name it "mattress". For now it's useful for sizing.

Side rail begun 

Rectangle 40 back toward the foot and 1.25 out from the side. Bucket with cherry and PushPull up 9 inches.

Pushpulling a tenon from the side rail 

Zoom in tight on the end of the siderail. Tape a guide 1 inch down from the top. Rectangle down full-width, 7 inches. PushPull the tenon out 6 inches.

Reality check. Real woodworking is not done this way. You start with a full board and then cut away the parts you don't want. Modeling, even when you are modeling woodwork, is done best by thinking like a modeler, even if you later intend to do the woodworking. Next we're going to create the keys that will lock everything in place. We'll pre-install them, nicely dropped through solid wood. Our mortice-cutting bits will see little use.

Create a drawing surface for the keys 

PushPull up a rectangle to create a drawing surface. Select all and group it. Your drawing will be 12 inches tall and 2 inches wide.

Guides used in drawing the outline of a key 

Draw something like what you see on the left. This is a matter of art, not craft. The lower 10 inches of the key is tapered. The head of the key is decorative. The only requirement is that a bit of the key's top can be whacked with a mallet to drive it tightly into its mortice. 7 inches of the key will be buried in the tenon. My key has 2.75 inches showing on top; 2.25 on bottom.

Not shown: Delete Guides; Delete drawing block; Bucket with cherry; PushPull out 1/2 inch.

Moving the key into position in the side rail tenon 

Draw a line around the key, 2.75 inches down from the top. Group it as "key".

Tape guides that divide the width of the tenon into 3/8, 1/2, 3/8 inches. Tape out 1 3/8 from the back (the width of a post). Move your key close to position.

Not shown: Zoom in close. Move, grabbing your key by the back of that little line you drew, to the intersection those guides provide.

Side rail half nearing completion 

Your side rail half is nearly complete.

There is a side rail strip on which the springs will rest. It's listed in the plans as 2.5 inches wide, rough, and 3 inches wide, finished. An end elevation shows the strip about 2 inches wide, which dimension I'm using.

Side rail strip installed to side rail half 

Rectangle 2 inches tall and 40 inches long on the bottom back of your side rail half. PushPull out an inch.

Eraser+Ctrl all of the outside edges of the side rail and the key.

Make a Gomponent (why does shortcut G not stand for group?) named "side_rail_half".

Lift it 6 inches above the "mattress".

A second side rail half, scaled -1 

Move/Copy a side rail half to the left. Use the central handle to scale it -1, putting the side rail strip on the inside.

Second slide rail half positioned at guide point, mattress left 

Finish by sliding it to the left side of the mattress. A guide point 7 inches above the "mattress" corner will help.


Select both side rail halves. Move/Copy a few inches toward the foot of the bed. Scale -1 from head toward foot.

Complete the side rails by zooming in close and moving the two halves together.

Explode your pairs, leaving four side rail half components. Group them as "slide_rails".

Completed side rails

Looking good. If you study the shot above, you see a line between halves on the inside, but a continuous side rail on the outside. Magic? No. Open one of your "side_rail_half" components for editing. Zoom in on the center line. Select it. Right-click, Hide. You can do the same for the top-center line, but no one will notice if you don't.

Bed Foot and Inner Arrays

We'll start with the posts, then go on to rails and ballusters. "Ballusters" is Stickleys word, and spelling, for the decorative vertical members at the foot and head of the bed. They are perfect candidates for inner arrays.

The rails are in the way. If we hide them, however, the side rail lines that we carefully hid will come back when we unhide. What to do? Make a layer named "hideRails", move the side rails into this layer and turn its visibility off. With this little trick you can have as many places to hide things as you have different things to hide. You should remember to clean up these layers before your final Save.

Naming Conventions

I have consistently used "lower_and_underscores" to name files, layers, etc. There are other conventions, such as "UpperAndLower", "lowerAndUpper", "separate-by-hyphens" and "just use spaces".

If you don't stick to all lowercase you invite bugs when you transfer your Windows-developed web pages to your Linux-based ISP. (All uppercase would work, too, but IT_LOOKS_LIKE_SHOUTING.) If you "separate-by-hyphens" your names will be unusable in Ruby programs. Ditto for "just use spaces". "lower_and_underscores" is the one convention that meets all requirements.

That leads me to use "hideRails", a "lowerAndUpper" name to give myself a visual clue that this layer is not a keeper. By the by, some geeks call this "camelCase" or "CamelCase". I am a card-carrying geek but I don't ever use this ambiguous, non-self-descriptive term.

Beginning a bed post 

The bed post is 1 3/8 thick, 4 inches wide, 53 inches tall at the foot. It extends one inch past the 1 1/4 inch-thick side rail.

The tops of the posts are tapered in a rounded fashion. The woodworker who makes these will probably use an edge sander and an artistic eye. Being a perfect Scrooge when it comes to bytes, I'll Scale and round the edges.

Tapering the top of a bed post 

PushPull up 47 inches. PushPull+Ctrl the final 6 inches. (This gives you edges you need to scale just the top of the post.)

Use the Scale tool on the top edge to taper. Remember that Scale+Ctrl reduces around the center. To be Stickley-faithful, scale the 4-inch width quite a bit but don't scale the 1 3/8 depth (per the section) or scale it just a little (per the drawing).

Rounding: Eraser+Ctrl all the edges. Do the whole post, not just the taper.

If you check your "hideRails" layer's Visible box you see that you really need those edges where the tenon goes through the mortice. This time, actually punching out the mortice is a good idea.

Morticing the post for the side rail 

This mortice is seven inches tall and 1 1/4 inches wide. It is an inch from the outside of the post and seven inches above the floor.

Detail of tenon through mortice 

Now if you turn "hideRails" visible, it's really starting to look like something!

Do you see how neatly that key locks rail to post? Tap it in with your rubber mallet and not too hard. You don't want to split the tenon.

Outlining the lower rail 

Group your post as "post". It will make a convenient drawing surface to start your lower rail. I used Eraser+Ctrl+Shift to unround the edges temporarily. Remind me to round them again, please.

Tape guides 3 inches up and 3/16 from the face of the post. Rectangle 1,5 (or maybe 5,1). The mixture of white and cherry (mostly cherry here) comes from your new, white rectangle sharing exactly the same location as the side of the post.

Not shown: PushPull 56.5 toward the other side of the bed.

Your post is now completely in the way. A "hidePost" layer lets you solve that problem.

Pushpulling out a tenon 

Center a 3,1/2 Rectangle on the end of the lower rail. PushPull it out 4 inches.

Repeat on the other end of the rail.

Group as "lower_rail".

Making the first balluster 

The ballusters are 5/8 by 3 by 31. (Stickley's plan says 33. That allows a one-inch tenon on both ends.) Start the first one two inches from the end (not counting the tenon) of the lower rail. Creating both guides along the top will help the next move.

After you pull up the first balluster, group it as "balluster".

We are about to use an inner array. It's like the outer array where you start the Move/Copy, type a distance, Enter, 6x, Enter. The repeat specification follows the distance, immediately. With an inner array, you Move/Copy to the far end of the array and say "6/" to create six copies, equally spaced between the end points.

The wonderful thing is that you can follow "6/" with "7/" or "5/" or any repeat specification you like. SketchUp lets you change your mind as often as you like. Each time, you get to look, squint, think "Hmmmm" and try something else. Keep at it until you're sure you've found the best one.

You know that zooming in close is the best way to ensure an accurate Move. The good news is that you can Shift+Z after starting your move and still type "7/" and the inner array will be created.

An inner array of ballusters 

Select your balluster. Move/Copy the leading bottom corner. Slide toward the far end. It should say "On Line", not "On Edge". Type 49.5 and Enter. Got it?

Type 5/ and Enter. Way too few. Type 15/ and Enter. Way too many. Keep trying different repeats until you are happy. Stickley's original was two inches space between 3-inch ballusters. Your goal is to please yourself, not Gustav. (He died in 1942. Too bad. I imagine he would have loved SketchUp.)

By the by, your ballusters don't have to be 3 inches wide. Frank Lloyd Wright used skinny ballusters in profusion. Think half-inch ballusters spaced less than a half inch apart. Wright snorted in contempt at "barn door furniture". (In deed, some of Stickley's early work was very heavy.) Wright and Stickley were not friends. Your goal is to please yourself. Not Gustav or Frank.

What is really fun is to vary the width and spacing of ballusters. You could go narrow at the ends to wider in the center. This is an easy Ruby program, but not easy without Rubies. You might want to take a quick look at Chapter ? to see what you can do.

Adding the upper rails 

Select the lower rail. Move it up 36 inches. Scale it from the top, down, 50%.

Move/Copy it up, 5.5 inches.

Second post after scaling by -1 

Unhide the post. Round those edges. Move/Copy it toward the other side. Scale it side-to-side by -1 (to get the mortice on the other side).

Laying out guides for the second post 

Lay out guides to move the post into final position. Its inside touches the mattress. It stands out from the mattress 1.25 inches (the width of the rail) plus another inch. It is 4 inches wide, 1 3/8 deep.

Zoom in and Move the post into position. Select all the parts of the bed foot (posts, rails and ballusters) and make them a group.

Bed Head, Mattress and Pillows

Stickley's bed head is nine inches taller than the foot. So is his array of ballusters. I think this is wasteful. While the foot ballusters are fully visible, the head ballusters are hidden by mattress and pillows. There's no need to waste more wood (or bytes) on ballusters that no one will see.

So Move/Copy the foot group to the head. Move it 81 3/8 down the red axis. Orbit underneath it. Select the group. Double-click to open the group for editing. Select a post. Open the post for editing. PushPull down another 9 inches. Close one post and repeat on the other post. Close post and close group. Move the whole assembly up nine inches and you are almost done.


Almost, because those side rail mortices are now in the wrong place.

Preparing to delete the posts mortice 

Open a post for editing. Orbit to look straight at the mortice. Use a window selection (left to right) to carefully outline the mortice. Delete.

Preparing to PushPull a new mortice 

Then rebuild it. Tape 7 inches up and 1 inch in from the outside. Rectangle 7 inches up, 1.25 inches wide.

New mortice Pushpulled from post 

Orbit around to the side so SketchUp can tell which way you are Pushpulling. Zoom in. Zoom in some more. PushPull. (These quarters are tight. Get the PushPull started and then type "1 3/8".)

Repeat the process on the other post. Your frame is complete. Make "hideRails" visible and admire your work. Does it bother you that the tenon of the lower rail intrudes into the side rail mortice? Move the lower rail up 3 inches. (Scale will downsize the rails, as well as the ballusters.)

On to the matress.

Turning "mattress" into a mattress Make "hideRails" not visible. Move the matress up 8 inches. Bucket it with your favorite fabric. PushPull+Ctrl it up 18 inches. Eraser+Ctrl the edges.

Last, File/Import... "pillow.skp". Position it. Move/Copy another to the other side of the bed. Save!

The woodworker is cleaning up the shop. You need to clean up your shop, too. Select "hideRails". (Click it. Don't punch the radio button.) A circled "-" appears in the Layers window. Click it. You will get a dialog asking you what you want done with the contents of the layer. The default is to move it into the default layer. Accept the default. Do the same with your other temporary layers. Then Window/Model Info/Statistics/Purge Unused. Save again.

A Couch

Let's build this together. The measurements are important.

Ctrl+N in the window where you make components. File/Save As... "couch.skp".

First post for the couch 

Lay out a 4,4 Rectangle. Bucket with cherry. PushPull up 24 inches.

Second couch post created 

Select all. Move/Copy 29 inches on the green axis.

Small rectange drawn on front post 

Zoom in on the left post. Rectange, 4,1.

PushPull couch arm 

PushPull a couch arm 25 inches.

Couch end group created 

PushPull the rear post 8 inches taller. Then group everything.

Copy group to other end of couch 

Move/copy 58 inches to form the other end of the couch.

Rectangle drawn between couch ends 

Rectangle between the couch ends. Note that this is from the front of the front legs to the front of the back legs. Double-check your measurements. You want 54 by 29 inches (4'6,2'5).

Couch bottom installed 

Bucket with cherry. PushPull up an inch. Group. Move up "On Blue Axis" 11 inches.

Couch back constructed 

Rectangle a back for the couch. Bucket with cherry. Orbit around to the back. Bucket again. PushPull out an inch. Orbit back. Group it.

Couch mattress installed 

Make another rectangle over the bottom of the couch. Bucket it with your favorite textile. PushPull up 3 inches. Make it a group.

Did you know that the basic Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V commands (cut, copy, paste) work with groups? You could open your "apartment_builtins" model, Ctrl+C one of the dinette bolsters and Ctrl+V it into this component. You'd need to open the dinette for editing, Qrotate after you pasted,... It's probably easier to make a new bolster.

Adding a bolster for the couch back 

Rectangle from a rear corner to the opposite end, 8 inches wide. Bucket. PushPull up 16 inches. Move the edge at the top front back 4 inches. Group.

Soften the upholster edges 

As a final step, open the bolster for editing. Eraser+Ctrl to soften edges. Close the bolster and do the same for the mattress.

You have now achieved couch! Save.

Why have I been calling the bottom a mattress? If you measure your dinette, you'll see that you need to add a center mattress piece, 29 by 54 inches, when you convert it for sleeping. Not by coincidence, the couch bottom is 29 by 54 inches.

Two Chairs

Of course there's no need to make two chairs. We can make one chair and then copy it as needed. Let's make a chair in the style of the couch. If you repeat the couch-building process, you're working much too hard.

The couch becomes a chair 

Start with the couch model. File/Save As... "chair.skp". Select all. Scale. Reduce the width 40%. Save.

A Table and Lamp

My end table is 30 inches deep, 24 inches high and wide.

An end table 

Ctrl+N. File/Save As... "table_end.skp". Make something about the same size as mine. Save.

Now the lamp. Here you are cordially invited to go wild. One of the highlights of the Craftsman home was its lamps. The most famous maker was Tiffany.

Sample Tiffany lamp one 

Make a lamp like this one. This is very, very Craftsman. It would be right at home in any Frank Lloyd Wright prairie house or Gustav Stickley Craftsman home.

Sample Tiffany lamp two 

Or make a lamp like this one. Craftsman architecture was part of the broader arts and crafts movements. One of the fundamental principles was that the craftsman was an artist.

A special thank you to

Arcs tangent at vertex 

One of the tooltips that appear as you adjust arcs is "Tangent at vertex". This can appear when one arc is drawn connected to another arc. This may help if you have in mind something floral.

Uninspired little table lamp 

I'm afraid I've done nothing but a rather simple table lamp. Sorry. I'm busy writing a tutorial.

Your Choice in the Small Room

What do you want to put in the small room? Thinking about starting a family? Try a crib. Do you build model airplanes? How about your ideal workshop? Make it a happy space.

I've given my small room over to old-fashioned stuff.

Get Ready to Import

Ctrl+N. File/SaveAs... "apartment_furniture.skp". Import "apt_flr.skp". Import a "couch", a "chair", a "table_end", a "lamp", a "bed" and whatever you have for your small room. Position them all roughly. Move/Copy a second chair. Delete the floor. Purge unused (Model Info, Statistics). Create and move everything into an "apartment_furniture" layer. Save.

Ctrl+N. This is a throwaway. Import "apt_flr", "apartment_inside_walls", "apartment_builtins" and "apartment_furniture". Got issues? (My second chair was sharing the space occupied by the shelves in the livingroom.) Note them.

Reopen "apartment_furniture." Move things as needed. Save. Repeat from the start of the previous paragraph until no more moves are needed.

In the next chapter we'll put all this together.

The apartments built-ins. view of apartment contents The apartments roof.